The Related Terminology about Soil Fertility
If you don’t know the following terminology related to soil fertility, how can you say that you are engaged in agriculture!
Agriculture, a scarce resources industry, is an industry that produces life. Since the arable land and water resources are less and less, the quality of food are required to be better and better in spite of the growing population. Scarce resources must be managed by efficiency man. Therefore, the future agriculture is not an extensive growth mode, but a highly integrated type that integrates technology, talents and other factors. It requires new equipment, new technologies, and new farmers. If you don’t understand the following soil fertility related terms, how can you say that you are engaged in agriculture!
The related terminology soil fertility
- Soil: It is a layer of loose material that can cover the earth’s land surface.And it has fertility characteristics and can grow green plants.
- Soil fertility: The ability of the soil to supply and regulate the water, nutrients, air and heat which are necessary for the normal growth of plants to some extent.
- Natural fertility: The fertility developed by soil itself under the combined actionof natural factors (five major soil-formingfactors: climate, biology, parent material, topography, time).
- Artificial fertility: the fertility developed by humans through cultivation and ripeningprocess on natural soil .
- Effective fertility: subjected to the soilpropertyitself, environmental conditions and techniques of soil management (farming, fertilization, cultivation and management), only part of soil fertility is shown in production. (Only part of it can be used by plants and showed out through the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil.)
- Potential Fertility: Soil fertility that is not directly reflected in production.
- Fertilizer: A general term for any substance that directly supplies nutrients necessary for plant growth, and improves soil properties to increase plant yield and quality.
- Organic Fertilizer: A general term for natural fertilizers that are locally produced in rural areas and that are made up of various agricultural wastes.
- Inorganic fertilizer: An inorganic compound containing high amounts of nutrients, which is produced through factorychemical processing.
- Mineral: A kindof compounds or elements that are naturally produced in the earth’s crust and have a certain chemical composition, physical properties, and internal structure.
- Soil organic matter: A general term for various carbonaceous organic compounds present in soil, narrowly defined as humus in soil.
- Ash element: An element that remains in the ash after it has been burned.
- Humification process: The process of forming simple, organic compounds into new, farily stable organic compounds that can preserve their nutrients.
- Humus: It is a general term for a series of dark amorphous polymers with similar structure, element composition and properties in soil organic matter.
- Soil texture: The type of soil that is divided according to a certain range of mechanical composition.
- Mineralization process: The process by which organic matter is broken down into simple inorganic compounds and release mineral nutrients.
- Nitrification: The process of oxidizing NH4+-N to NO3-N by the action of nitrosating bacteria and nitrifying bacteria under well-ventilated conditions.
- Denitrification: The process by which denitrifying bacteria reduce nitrate to N2O and N2 under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions.
- Vulcanization: The process by which a reduced type of inorganic sulfide is oxidized to sulfuric acid by a sulfurized bacteria.
- Humidification coefficient: The number of grams (dry weight) that can be decomposed into humus after being applied to the soil per gram of organic matter (dry weight).
- Soil structure: Under the combined effect of internal and external factors, the soil particles agglomerate into aggregateof different sizes, shapes and properties.
- Adsorption properties of soil: The surface of soil particles has the ability to adsorb yin and yangparticle, gases, liquids and other substances.
- Exchange of positive ion: The interaction of cations adsorbed on the surface of the soil colloid with cations in the soil solution.
- Cation exchange capacity: refers to the number of moles of all exchangeable cations absorbed per kilogram of dry soil at a pH of 7.
- Ion saturation: The amount of this ion adsorbed by the soil as a percentage of the amount of soil cation exchange.
- Complementary ions: The soil colloid adsorbs multiple cations at the same time, and they are called complementary ions.
- Essential element:the plant can not normally grow without this element.
- The three elements of fertilizer: N, P, K are the nutrient elements that are needed for crops and lose much when harvested, but the amount returned to soil by the formation of residues and roots is not much, so the effective amount in the soil is small. so fertilization and regulationis essential.
- The enthalpy effect of ions: the presence or excess of one ion in a solution can inhibit the absorption of another ion.
- Ion interaction (Witz action): The presence of an ion in a solution facilitates the absorption of another ion by the root.
- Precipitation of phosphoric acid: The phosphoric acid produced by the dissolution process of superphosphate is very acidic. When it diffuses to the surroundings, it can dissolve iron, aluminum, manganese or calcium, magnesium, etc. in the soil. When these cations reach a certain concentration, acorresponding phosphate precipitate is produced.
- Weak acid soluble phosphate fertilizer: Phosphate fertilizer soluble in 2% citric acid or neutral ammonium citrate solution.
- Compound fertilizer: Among the three nutrients ofN, P and K, there are at least two kinds of nutrients are clearlyindicated.